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HUMAN DISEASES (Part 4 of 7)   Leave a comment

Other Growth Changes

Some alterations in tissue growth are not cancerous. Atrophy, for example, is a lessening in size. It is the shrinking of cells or tissues for various reasons. Starvation, for instance, causes atrophy of the adipose, or fatty, tissues. Disuse of a body part may also lead to atrophy. When a fractured arm is placed in a cast, the arm’s muscles decrease in size from lack of use.

Compensatory hypertrophy, in medicine, condition that results when one of a paired set of organs, such as a kidney or a lung, is removed and the remaining organ increases in size.

Hypertrophy is an increase in size of individual cells or fibres It results in an enlargement of the body part containing these muscles or fibres Hypertrophy of the heart has already been discussed. Compensatory hypertrophy is best seen in paired organs. When a diseased kidney is removed from the body, the remaining kidney grows larger because it now must do the work of two kidneys.


The lungs are spongy organs through which vital oxygen enters the body and needless carbon dioxide exits. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in and out of capillaries in the many tiny air sac’s, or alveoli, in the lungs. Although the breathing passages have defences against invading germs and irritants, the lungs can be stricken by a number of serious diseases.

Chronic bronchitis is a disease that results from infection of the air passages by bacteria or viruses. It is marked by cough and increased production of sputum, an accumulation of saliva, mucus, and pus. Air pollution and cigarette smoking both can aggravate the malady.

Tuberculosis, bacterial disease most frequently affecting lungs; associated with fever and loss of weight; commonly transmitted through the air (droplet infection) but also from drinking unpasteurized milk obtained from infected cows.

Tuberculosis is a complicated disease that most often strikes the lungs. The bacilli that cause it grow from place to place in the lung, leaving cavities in the unoccupied sites.

Symptoms of tuberculosis may include weight loss, fever, chest pain, cough, and sputum. After the active infection is arrested, a period follows when the disease may break out again. Tuberculosis is treated with isoniazid and other drugs.

Pneumonia, or acute infection of the lungs, may occur suddenly in a seemingly healthy person. It is usually marked by fever, cough, and chest pain. Lung X rays show patches of inflammation. Though once quite fatal, the threat of pneumonia has been reduced as a result of antibiotic treatment.

Pleurisy, an inflammation of the pleura; caused by infection, injury, or other chest diseases.

Pleura, the serous membrane that covers the lungs, lines the walls of the thorax, and is reflected upon the diaphragm.

Pleurisy is severe chest pain accompanying each deep breath in a person with an inflamed pleura, the twin membrane around each lung and lining the chest cavity. Pleurisy can attend pneumonia or result from direct infection of the pleura.

Emphysema is a serious lung disease that follows destruction of the elastic and connective tissue fibres supporting the lung. It is linked with advancing age. Certain forms of emphysema are inherited. Heavy cigarette smoking and long exposure to air pollutants seem to encourage the disease. A person with emphysema, lacking sufficient lung elasticity, wheezes and has trouble breathing. Furthermore, air movement in the lungs is reduced and the patient is easily fatigued because he fails to get enough oxygen or get rid of enough carbon dioxide.

Asthma is the wheezing or whistling sound that accompanies each breath when the air passages contain too much mucus. It may follow lung infection or result from an allergic reaction that causes muscle spasms and swelling in the air passages.

Acute pulmonary oedema results when fluid quickly accumulates in the lungs and fills the alveoli. The fluid build-up is caused by heart trouble that, in turn, produces back pressure in the pulmonary veins and the left atrium of the heart to which they carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs. A person suffering acute pulmonary oedema is suddenly breathless and turns blue because of oxygen-poor blood. The condition is treated with oxygen, digitalis to strengthen heart action, and diuretics to speed fluid removal by the kidneys.

Pneumothorax, presence of air in the usually air-free pleural space between the lungs and chest walls.

Pneumothorax occurs when air gets into the chest between the pleural lining. The lung then collapses. A collapsed lung may occur when the chest is pierced in some way or when an abnormal bleb, or blister, on the lung surface bursts.

Lung abscess is an accumulation of a mass of pus inside the lung. A lung abscess can increase the seriousness of pneumonia and other lung infections, especially in chronically ill persons.

Hyaline membrane disease is a disorder of some prematurely born infants. The alveoli of afflicted babies are lined with a protein material, limiting the amount of oxygen their blood can receive. The disease is often fatal.

Histoplasmosis is a fungus infection of the lungs. Fungi lodge in the lungs and multiply until body defences wall them off. In some areas it was once called “summer flu” because its symptoms resemble those of influenza. Serious cases involve weight loss and a long convalescent period.

Silicosis, disease of the lungs, caused by inhaling tiny sharp particles of stone dust; fibrous tissue forming around particles causes cough, shortness of breath, and weakness.

Pneumoconiosis means “dust disease.” It can strike miners and industrial workers who inhale damaging amounts of dust. One of the most serious is silicosis, which results from inhaling quartz dust. Another, anthracosilicosis, arises from inhalation of coal and quartz dust.


Because of its location the skin is perhaps more susceptible to disease than any other body organ. Even so, it is marvellously designed for its particular jobs of protecting the inner body against harm from the outside surroundings, receiving clues about what is happening externally, and keeping the body cool by means of the evaporation of sweat produced by its sweat glands. The skin is thick, leathery, and tough enough to prevent mechanical injury to the body. It is also covered with a barrier of dead cells that block harmful chemicals from getting into the body.

The skin is richly supplied with nerves that enable the perception of pain, touch, heat, and cold. Blood vessels in the skin can either contract or expand in response to nerve signals. A person’s emotional state can often be observed through changes in skin colour Shame or rage reddens the skin; fear blanches it. The skin may react to disease in a great many ways including formation of blisters, pimples, ulcers, tumours, and by haemorrhage

Blackheads are an accumulation of a horny material in special follicles of the face. The characteristic black dots in blackheads are not dirt but melanin, the pigment responsible for skin colour

Acne is an outcropping of blackheads or pimples on the face of an adolescent. It is brought on by hormonal changes that accompany sexual maturity. It is not caused by food, emotions, or uncleanliness. Antibiotics are available for the treatment of severe acne, but most cases respond well to local application of a peeling agent.

Warts are horny growths caused by virus infection. They are spread from person to person. Although warts cannot be prevented, they can be burned away with an electric needle or a caustic chemical such as nitric acid.

Hives, or urticaria, are itchy, whitish elevations of the skin. They appear and disappear rapidly. Hives are often the result of an allergic reaction to certain foods or medicines. Persons who suffer severe cases of hives can receive a series of desensitizing shots. Antihistamine drugs sometimes can relieve a bout of hives.

Birthmark, a skin blemish, result of an overgrowth of blood vessels.

Birthmarks are the result of an overgrowth of blood vessels. They usually show up after birth as port-wine-coloured stains or strawberry-coloured marks. The strawberry marks may eventually disappear but at times can be destroyed quickly by the application of extreme cold. Port-wine stains and other long-lasting skin blemishes can be concealed by special cosmetics.

Eczema, or dermatitis, is a superficial inflammation of the skin. It can be an allergic reaction to poison ivy, dyes, or drugs. It can be provoked by such irritants as acids, solvents, or excessive use of soap or detergents. Sunburn can also cause eczema. Some forms of it, such as infantile eczema and seborrhoeic dermatitis, stem from an unknown cause. Nonetheless, nearly all types of eczema can be relieved by the application of corticosteroid creams.

Athlete’s foot is a fungus infection of the skin between the toes. The infected area is scaly, moist, and itchy. It usually has a disagreeable smell. Athlete’s foot can be relieved when anti fungal drugs are applied to the infected skin each day. Fungus infections that cause a loss of hair or nails must be treated with griseofulvin, an antibiotic.

Bacterial infections such as the psoriasis caused by “staphylococci” germs are rare because of modern standards of hygiene and sanitation. However, the bacterial disease gonorrhoea, which passes between the skin of the sex organs, has risen to epidemic proportions among teenagers in recent years. This and other bacterial infections of the skin are remedied with antibiotics.


The nervous system is the quick communication system of the body. Information from the outside world enters the body through the sense organs and is sent to the spinal cord for instant response or is relayed to the brain for further processing.

Nerves and the membranes that protect portions of the nervous system are susceptible to breakdown or infection. Sometimes, the organisms that cause such diseases as mumps or infectious hepatitis can infect the nervous system, too.

Nervous System Infections

Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, or membranes around the brain and spinal cord. It can occur through viruses, bacteria, fungi, or yeasts that get into the nervous system. Meningitis is a serious disease and can be fatal.

Shingles, inflammation of certain nerve tissue caused by virus herpes zoster.

Shingles, or herpes zoster, is a virus-caused inflammation of certain nerve tissue. Painful skin bumps occur over the line of the inflamed nerve or its branches. Shingles and chicken pox are both caused by the same virus.

ANIMALS (Part 1 of 4)   Leave a comment


DEFINITION: 1 any living organism, excluding plants and bacteria: most animals can move about independently and have specialized sense organs that enable them to react quickly to stimuli: animals do not have cell walls, nor do they make food by photosynthesis 2 any such organism other than a human being, esp. a mammal or, often, any four-footed creature 3 a brutish, debased, or inhuman person 4 [Colloq.] a person, thing, concept, etc. thought of as a kind or type [today’s athlete is another animal altogether]

All living things are divided into two main kingdoms the animal and plant kingdoms and two or three other kingdoms that include bacteria, blue-green algae, and one-celled creatures with definite nuclei. What is the difference between a horse, for example, and grass? A horse moves about in the pasture eating grass. It trots toward you when you offer it a lump of sugar and shows pleasure when you stroke its head. The grass, however, is rooted to one place. It does not respond behaviourally to people or to the horse in any way.

Animals Move About and Sense Surroundings

Adult animals move freely from place to place during at least one phase of their life. Plants usually cannot move unless a force, such as the wind, causes them to move.

Most animals move freely from place to place and can sense their surroundings; that is, they can taste, smell, hear, see, and touch. Certain simple animals, such as the corals and barnacles, spend most of their lives fastened to one spot, but they are able to swim freely when they are young. Even these rooted animals have parts that move in order to capture food. Plants, however, cannot shift about at their own will. They react to heat, light, chemicals, and touch, but their responses are involuntary and automatic, quite different from those of animals.

All living things are made of cells. The walls of plant and animal cells are different.

Cellulose, complex carbohydrate consisting of 3,000 or more glucose units; basic structural component of plant cell walls; 90% of cotton and 50% of wood is cellulose; most abundant of all naturally occurring organic compounds; indigestible by humans; can be digested by herbivores, such as cows and horses, because they retain it long enough for digestion by micro organisms present in their digestive systems; also digestible by termites; processed to produce papers and fibres; chemically modified to yield plastics, photographic film, and rayon; other derivatives used as adhesives, explosives, thickening agents, and in moisture-proof coatings.

All living things are made up of cells of protoplasm. They may consist of a single cell, as does an amoeba, or billions of cells, as do trees and horses. The cell wall of a plant is composed of a woody material called cellulose. No true animal contains cellulose. Animal cells are bounded by a membrane composed chiefly of fat and protein.

Green plants make their own food. With the aid of the green substance called chlorophyll, they use the energy in sunlight to change carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and other food materials. No true animal contains chlorophyll.

Animals must eat, either directly or indirectly, the food manufactured by members of the plant kingdom. A horse cannot stand in the sun and wait for its body to make fat and proteins. It must move about the pasture in search of green grass. Even meat eaters for example, lions live on animals, such as zebras, which in turn subsist on plants.

The Variety of Animal Life

More than a million different kinds of animals inhabit the Earth. The exact number is not known, for new kinds are continually being discovered. They live in the seas, from the surface down to the black depths where no ray of light penetrates. On mountaintops and in deserts, in mud and in hot pools some form of animal life may be found.

Animals are infinitely varied in form, size, and habits. The smallest animals are bits of protoplasm that can be seen only with a microscope. The largest, the blue whales, may be more than 100 feet (30 meters) long and weigh 300,000 pounds (136,000 kilograms).

Some of the most familiar animals, such as dogs, birds, frogs, and fish, have a backbone and a central nervous system. They are called vertebrates, meaning animals with backbones. Animals without backbones are called invertebrates and include arthropods, worms, molluscs, and many other groups. Most of the vertebrates and many invertebrates have a head where sense organs are concentrated and have legs, wings, or fins for locomotion. Vertebrates and many invertebrates, such as the arthropods and worms, have bilateral, or two-sided, symmetry. This means that they have two mirror-image sides (a right side and a left side), distinct upper and lower surfaces of the body, and a distinct front and rear.

Some invertebrates, such as jellyfish, sea anemones, and starfish, display radial symmetry, in which the parts of the body are arranged around a central axis, similar to a wheel. Animals with radial symmetry live in marine or freshwater aquatic environments. Some drift with the currents, unable to swim in any definite direction. Others become attached to a solid object by one end and float with the mouth end upright. Tentacles arranged in a circle around the mouth sweep in food particles and ward off enemies.

One-celled animals called protozoans live in fresh and salt water. Many are shapeless creatures and cannot swim toward their food. They move along by squeezing out a finger like projection from the body. This is called a pseudopod, from the Greek meaning “false foot.” The pseudopod fastens to something solid, and the rest of the body flows into the fastened projection. The amoeba also moves in this manner. One-celled animals are very small. They are single blobs of liquid enclosed in a thin membrane and as such cannot attain a large size or a very definite shape.

Animals with Outside Skeletons and Feet

Molluscs have soft bodies that are not divided into specialized sections such as head, thorax, and abdomen. Many molluscs are enclosed in hard, hinged shells. Snails have a single large, fleshy foot located on the stomach side.

The heads of the octopus and the squid are surrounded by a circle of eight or ten tentacles that act as arms and feet. Oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops all have a single axe-shaped foot which they burrow into sand.

Most molluscs do not move around efficiently. Oysters fasten themselves to something solid and settle down for life, letting food drift to them. Scallops may move in zigzag leaps by clapping their shells together.

Joint-Legged Animals

Arthropod, animal of the phylum Arthropoda comprising invertebrates with external skeleton, segmented body, and jointed appendages.

Joint-legged animals, or arthropods, have bodies divided into segments that have specialized functions. These animals also have many jointed legs. Most arthropods are covered with a jointed skeleton made of a horny material. This outside skeleton is lighter than the shells of the molluscs The legs and muscles and many organs of the arthropod are attached to the outside skeleton.

The arthropods include insects, lobsters, crabs, centipedes, millipedes, scorpions, and spiders. They can run, jump, swim, and crawl. Some live mostly on land, while others live mostly in water. Many of the insects have wings and can fly. Arthropods inhabit most of the Earth’s environments, from the poles to the tropics, and are found in fresh and marine water and in terrestrial habitats.

How Back boned Animals Move

Vertebrates move through water and air and over the ground with great speed and skill. Birds, with their feathered wings, are the best fliers. Fish are the best swimmers. However, other vertebrates also can fly and swim. Bats fly on wings of membrane like skin. The flying squirrel glides on a broad membrane between its legs. The flying fish soars over the surface of the ocean by using its fins. Neither the fish nor the squirrel can soar great distances, however.

Some turtles swim with paddle like front legs. Some water birds can swim underwater with their wings. The mud skipper and walking catfish are fishes that walk on mud by pulling themselves along on their front fins.

Frogs, kangaroos, various cats, and some fishes are superior jumpers. Salmon leap up waterfalls when they travel from the sea to their home streams to lay their eggs. Tarpon, swordfish, and sailfish make great leaps out of the water when pursuing their prey or trying to escape an enemy.


Animals breathe in different ways:

  • Some animals, like amoeba and sponges, let oxygen move through their cell walls.

  • Fish and tadpoles breathe with their gills.

  • Insects bring air in through pores, or holes, called spiracles.

  • Mammals, birds, and reptiles breathe with lungs.

All animals must take in oxygen in order to change food into a form that the body can use. One-celled animals that live in water absorb oxygen directly through their membranes. The sponge is a very simple many-celled animal. The surface of a sponge is covered with millions of tiny pores. Water bearing dissolved oxygen and minute food particles flows through the pores and out of the opening at the top of the sponge.

Fish and tadpoles breathe by means of gills. Insects and caterpillars take air into the body through breathing pores called spiracles.

Mammals, birds, and reptiles obtain oxygen from the air. They take it into the lungs, and the oxygen passes through membranes in the lungs into particles called red blood cells. The bloodstream then carries the oxygen to all parts of the body. Amphibians have lungs, but they also have thin, moist skins that absorb oxygen directly.


Sea squirt, a tunicate or saclike marine animal, so called from its habit of ejecting water when touched; belongs to the phylum Chordata.

Hydra, primitive water animal of the class Hydrozoa and the genus Hydra.

All animals reproduce their own kind. One of the most primitive forms of reproduction is by fission, in which the individual organism divides to produce a replica of itself. Some animals, such as sea squirts, reproduce by budding: lumps appear along a branchlike organ and develop into young sea squirts. Sea squirts, sponges, corals, and other creatures that bud often remain together and form large colonies. The hydra also reproduces by budding, but in time the young bud separates and goes off to live alone.

Most animals reproduce by means of eggs from the female that are fertilized by sperm from the male. The eggs of some species are deposited in a nest or in some other manner before hatching. Most species of mammal and some species of reptile and fish bear their young alive, the fertilized eggs being retained within the body of the female.

The types of reproductive behaviour among animals are almost as varied as the kinds of animals themselves. Some species, such as most insects and turtles, deposit their eggs and give them no further attention. In colonies of the social insects, such as ants and bees, a single female lays all of the eggs, and workers provide care and nourishment for the developing young in the nest. The females of some reptiles, such as the king cobra and the blue-tailed skink, and amphibians, such as the marble salamander, stay with their clutch of eggs until they hatch but provide no protection or nourishment for the young. Some fish guard their young after they are born. Crocodilians protect the eggs before hatching and the young for several months afterwards. Many birds provide not only protection but also nourishment for the developing young. Mammals, which feed their young with milk produced by the mother, provide care for their young much longer than do other classes of animals.

Posted 2012/01/29 by Stelios in Education

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